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  1. Learning Disabilities and Disorders -
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Marisol has a hard time doing so, and the counselor tells her she believes she may have the learning disability dyscalculia. During a meeting with Marisol's parents the next day, the counselor gives them information on specialists who can confirm that Marisol has a learning difficulty and discusses with them some steps they can take to help Marisol succeed in the classroom.

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The specialist confirms dyscalculia. The school helps Marisol connect with a tutor who is trained to help students with dyscalculia , and within a few weeks, her math work shows improvement. Mental health professionals who meet our membership requirements can take advantage of benefits such as:. Get Listed Login. Get Help Learn About.

What Are Learning Difficulties? Find a Therapist Advanced Search. Frequently Asked Questions on Intellectual Disability. Lyness, D. Learning Disabilities. Math Anxiety. Patino, E. Last Update: Join GoodTherapy. Mental health professionals who meet our membership requirements can take advantage of benefits such as: Client referrals Continuing education credits Publication and media opportunities Marketing resources and webinars Special discounts Learn More.

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Specific Learning Disorder. Specific learning disorder often referred to as learning disorder or learning disability, see note on terminology is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins during school-age, although may not be recognized until adulthood. An estimated 5 to 15 percent of school-age children struggle with a learning disability.

Learning Disabilities and Disorders -

An estimated 80 percent of those with learning disorders have reading disorder in particular commonly referred to as dyslexia. One-third of people with learning disabilities are estimated to also have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD. Other specific skills that may be impacted include the ability to put thoughts into written words, spelling, reading comprehension, math calculation and math problem solving.

Difficulties with these skills may cause problems in learning subjects such as history, math, science and social studies and may impact everyday activities. A note on terminology: Specific learning disorder is a medical term used for diagnosis. Though learning disability is not exactly synonymous with specific learning disorder, someone with a diagnosis of specific learning disorder can expect to meet criteria for a learning disability and have the legal status of a federally recognized disability to qualify for accommodations and services in school.

Learning disorder can only be diagnosed after formal education starts. To be diagnosed with a specific learning disorder, a person must meet four criteria. A diagnosis is made through a combination of observation, interviews, family history and school reports.

Neuropsychological testing may be used to help find the best way to help the individual with specific learning disorder. Dyslexia is a term that refers to the difficulty with reading. People with dyslexia have difficulty connecting letters they see on a page with the sounds they make. As a result, reading becomes a slow, effortful and not a fluent process for them. Problems in reading begin even before learning to read, for example when children have trouble breaking down spoken words into syllables and recognizing words that rhyme.

Kindergarten-age children may not be able to recognize and write letters as well as their peers. People with dyslexia may have difficulty with accuracy and spelling as well. People with dyslexia, including adolescents and adults, often try to avoid activities involving reading when they can reading for pleasure, reading instructions.

These disorders are intrinsic to the individual and presumed to be due to Central Nervous System Dysfunction. Even though a learning disability may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions e. This evidence is particularly impressive because it converges across different indicators and methodologies. The central concept of SLD involves disorders of learning and cognition that are intrinsic to the individual. SLD are specific in the sense that these disorders each significantly affect a relatively narrow range of academic and performance outcomes.

SLD may occur in combination with other disabling conditions, but they are not due primarily to other conditions, such as intellectual disability, behavioral disturbance, lack of opportunities to learn, or primary sensory deficits. The issue of defining learning disabilities has generated significant and ongoing controversy.

The DSM-5 does not limit learning disorders to a particular diagnosis such as reading, mathematics, or written expression. Instead, it is a single diagnosis criterion describing drawbacks in general academic skills and includes detailed specifiers for the areas of reading, mathematics, and written expression. In the United States and Canada , the terms learning disability and learning disorder LD refer to a group of disorders that affect a broad range of academic and functional skills including the ability to speak , listen , read , write , spell , reason , organize information , and do math.

People with learning disabilities generally have intelligence that is average or higher. The Section of the Rehabilitation Act , effective May , guarantees certain rights to people with disabilities, especially in the cases of education and work, such being in schools, colleges and university settings. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act , formerly known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act , is a United States federal law that governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to children with disabilities.

It addresses the educational needs of children with disabilities from birth to the age of In Canada, the first association in support of children with learning disabilities was founded in by a group of concerned parents. Originally called the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities, the Learning Disabilities Association of Canada — LDAC was created to provide awareness and services for individuals with learning disabilities, their families, at work, and the community.

Since education is largely the responsibility of each province and territory in Canada, provinces and territories have jurisdiction over the education of individuals with learning disabilities, which allows the development of policies and support programs that reflect the unique multicultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic conditions of its area.

In the UK , terms such as specific learning difficulty SpLD , developmental dyslexia , developmental coordination disorder and dyscalculia are used to cover the range of learning difficulties referred to in the United States as "learning disabilities".

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In the UK, the term "learning disability" refers to a range of developmental disabilities or conditions that are almost invariably associated with more severe generalized cognitive impairment. In Japan , acknowledgement and support for students with learning disabilities has been a fairly recent development, and has improved drastically in the last [ which? The first definition for learning disability was coined in , and in , the Enrichment Project for the Support System for Students with Learning Disabilities was established.

Since then, there have been significant efforts to screen children for learning disabilities, provide follow-up support, and provide networking between schools and specialists. The effects of having a learning disability or learning difference are not limited to educational outcomes: individuals with learning disabilities may experience social problems as well. Neuropsychological differences can affect the accurate perception of social cues with peers.

It has generally been difficult to determine the efficacy of special education services because of data and methodological limitations. Emerging research suggests adolescents with learning disabilities experience poorer academic outcomes even compared to peers who began high school with similar levels of achievement and comparable behaviors.

Many studies have been done to assess the correlation between learning disability and self-esteem. These studies have shown that an individual's self-esteem is indeed affected by his or her awareness of their learning disability. Students with a positive perception of their academic abilities generally tend to have higher self-esteem than those who do not, regardless of their actual academic achievement.

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However, studies have also shown that several other factors can influence self-esteem. Skills in non-academic areas, such as athletics and arts, improve self-esteem.

Learning Disabilities

Also, a positive perception of one's physical appearance has also been shown to have positive effects of self-esteem. Another important finding is that students with learning disabilities are able to distinguish between academic skill and intellectual capacity. This demonstrates that students who acknowledge their academic limitations but are also aware of their potential to succeed in other intellectual tasks see themselves as intellectually competent individuals, which increases their self-esteem.

The causes for learning disabilities are not well understood, and sometimes there is no apparent cause for a learning disability. However, some causes of neurological impairments include:. Learning disabilities can be identified by psychiatrists , school psychologists , clinical psychologists , counseling psychologists , neuropsychologists and other learning disability specialists through a combination of intelligence testing , academic achievement testing, classroom performance, and social interaction and aptitude.